Research to discover cells winning the Nobel Prize in Biomedical 2019

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The Nobel Biomedical Prize is the first published in the series of prestigious Nobel Prizes. The Nobel Prize is awarded for achievements in science, literature and peace. This award was born in 1901 at the will of inventor and businessman Alfred Nobel. Comes with the Nobel Prize is 9 million Swedish crowns, equivalent to 913,000 USD will be equally divided among all three.

The award is published in Sweden. Accordingly, scientists awarded the 2019 Biomedic Nobel Prize include William Kaelin and American Gregg Semenza; Peter Ratcliffe, English. "The discovery of this year's Nobel Prize-winning scientists clearly shows the mechanism of one of life's most important adaptive processes," said the Swedish Nobel Council.

The study of the scientists laid the foundations for us to understand how oxygen levels affect the physiological and metabolic functions of the cell. "Oxygen sensors are at the core of research in many diseases," said the Nobel Council. "Tireless efforts by laboratories and pharmaceutical companies are now focused on developing drugs that can interfere with the disease, by activating or blocking the oxygen sensor mechanism."

The work of the three scientists established an understanding of how oxygen affects cell metabolism and physiological function, opening promising new doorways in the treatment of anemia, cancer, and many other diseases.

Scientists awarded the 2019 Nobel Prize in Biomedical include American William Kaelin and Gregg Semenza; Peter Ratcliffe, English. William Kaelin, a professor of medicine at Harvard University, was awarded the Lasker Award for basic medical research in 2016 and the ASCO Cancer Science Award 2016. His laboratory studies proteins. tumor suppression. He said, when he received a call at 5 am, he felt dizzy and thought it was a dream.

Gregg Semenza is a professor of oncology, biochemistry and medicine at Johns Hopkins Medical University. He is the director of the blood vessel program at the Cell Engineering Institute. He was the recipient of the 2016 Lasker Award for basic medical research.

The third recipient of this year's Nobel Prize in Medicine is Peter Ratcliffe, a British physician and cell and molecular biologist known for his work on cell reactions to love. hypoxia. He is also a member of Francis Crick Academy in London (UK).

New research directions for new treatment of heart failure, anemia and cancer

Nobody knows that oxygen is essential for sustaining life, but the molecular mechanism behind the way cells react when oxygen supply is reduced or increased is still a mystery. . And the scientists who won this year's award are the ones who can explain that mechanism.

The work of three scientists explains the cellular mechanism that regulates the activity of genes that respond to different levels of oxygen, affecting cell metabolism and physiological function, opening up scenes. New promise in the treatment of anemia, cancer, and many other diseases. The researchers found that oxygen sensing mechanisms occur in nearly every cell. When blood oxygen levels are low, also known as hypoxia, a protein complex called hypoxia inducer (HIF) will increase, to attach to DNA that can connect and regulate EPO genes (which occur when oxygen levels low in blood) as well as other genes that have DNA attached to HIF.

Their studies show that when oxygen levels are high, cells contain very little HIF. But when the oxygen level is low, the amount of HIF increases to attach to DNA that can connect and regulate the EPO gene as well as other genes that have DNA attached to HIF.

For example, during exercise, the body exchanges oxygen at high speed, the cell must "turn on the switch" to find the amount of oxygen needed to meet. In stroke patients, when oxygen does not reach the brain, cells in the brain that survive, need to adapt to low oxygen levels. University of Oxford cancer researcher Amato Giaccia said many genes are activated in an oxygen-free environment and even in tumor cells. This research will open up new directions in the field of medicine.

In 2018, the Biomedical Prize went to two US and Japanese scientists for research on immunotherapy for cancer treatment.

In the near future, the Nobel Prize in Physics, Chemistry, Literature and Peace will be announced one by one. The Economic Prize was announced on October 14. Particularly, the literature field this year awarded two awards, for 2018 and 2019, after the scandal that canceled the award last year.

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